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Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake removal

The ability to enter cells is one of the factors that determine the clinical utility of nanoparti¬cles (NPs).

The size of Au NPs is one of the limitations in the potential use of gold markers for medical imaging or tracking of harder tumors.

Recent interest in using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for therapy in radiation medicine has motivated development of a liposome-based system to enhance their delivery to cells.

In this study, liposomes were demonstrated to perform like a “Trojan Horse” to deliver small (1.4 nm) Au NPs into tumor cells by overcoming the energetically unfavorable endocytosis process for small NPs.

The fewer Au NPs are in the solution, the lesser chance for a receptor to receive gold nanoparticle; “mem¬brane wrapping” time is longer, resulting to lower uptake by the cell.

Theoretical models support the size- and concentration-dependent NP-uptake.

Nanoscale particles of gold nowadays dominate a great deal of attention for biomedical applications.

Better knowledge of the nano-bio interface will lead to advanced biomedical tools for diagnostic imaging and therapeutics.

Nanotechnology involves creation and utilization of materials, devices or systems on the nanometer scale.In addition, the in vitro results provide a basis for modeling the biokinetics and in vivo behavior of ENMs.Nonetheless, we must use caution in interpreting in vitro toxicity results too literally because of dosimetry differences between in vitro and in vivo systems as well the increased complexity of an in vivo environment.Accordingly, we cover how ENM chemical properties such as hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, material composition, surface functionalization and charge, dispersal state, and adsorption of proteins on the surface determine ENM cellular uptake, intracellular biotransformation, and bioelimination versus bioaccumulation.We review how physical properties such as size, aspect ratio, and surface area of ENMs influence the interactions of these materials with biological systems, thereby affecting their hazard potential.

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Accepted for publication 28 June 2017 Published 2 August 2017 Volume 20 Pages 5511—5523 DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.

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